Maximum Power Point Tracker (MPPT)
May 24, 2023
Nowadays, human life has inseparable from solar energy system, whether outdoor or at home, all we need to use anywhere, anytime that is electricity, the solar resource is the right answer to provide power. MPPT is the significant advancement in the solar industry. The whole title of MPPT that is maximum power point tracker, MPPT was founded by Stuart Watkinson in 1985 by a small Australian company called AERL, this technology is now used in almost all grid-connected solar inverters and all MPPT solar charge controllers. Great invention! today we will focus on MPPT to learn more about this significant advancement.
Actually , MPPT has closely related to PV solar system, PV solar system have different relationships with inverter systems, external grids, battery banks and electrical load. As far as i know about solar power, the factors that influence the efficiency of power of solar battery includes the amount of sunlight, shading , solar panel temperature and the load’s electrical characteristics. If you adjust the angle of your solar panel , the energy generated will be also affected. The factors I have mentioned once make change , the load characteristic will change, meanwhile , system will optimal to keep the highest power transfer. So what is the MPP? The voltage at which PV module can produce maximum power, that called MPP. MPPT is the process to adjust load characteristic as the condition change.Take a example on power, due to the solar irradiance, the real power deliver higher than the regulate power, for some data prove that 200W/m2 may generate 75W power , 1000W/m2 may generate 400W power, so we can get a conclusion from these data, different solar irradiance( weather condition) effect more or less power.
Solar panels and Solar generator all can work well whether total use or individual use, in fact , solar panel can hard to provide the massive voltage to the solar generator, without MPPT, solar generator extract less power from solar panels that may cause waste. It can seen from this MPPT can save more power. And grid-tied system will also face the same issue, to some extent, MPPT not only influence solar generator , but also influence the grid-tied system. It make array operate within a ideal work voltage to improve energy extraction with several situation.
- Tracking optimal power -- MPPT modifies the battery resistance, increases the voltage of the solar panel, the resistance is inversely proportional to the current, reduces the current output, detects the main circuit DC voltage and output current, and calculates the output power of the solar cell array through MPPT. Almost all solar related applications can be improved by MPPT as MPPT can help generate better power output and will gain more advantages when the operating voltage of the module is higher. When radiation and temperature are not suitable for solar installations, power may be lost, but more power can be transferred and saved when using maximum power point tracking. For example, when the sunlight is weak, the output voltage of the solar panel will be affected by the weather conditions, and the MPPT can adjust the voltage higher to better match the battery voltage.
- Applicable to several industries -- MPPT solar charge controller could also be used in industries like mini-turbine and wind turbine, etc.
- Improve output efficiency -- MPPT would simplify system and improve output efficiency. It can track the operating point of the PV system where the maximum power is generated, thus increasing the overall energy efficiency of the system, high-efficiency and stable output.
- Improved energy production -- MPPT can adjust the operating point of the PV system to account for changes in weather conditions and other factors that can affect energy production. This can lead to improved energy production and a more consistent power output.
- Reduced system size -- MPPT can also reduce the size of the PV system required to generate a given amount of power.
- Adapt to the change of different weather -- Under cold weather , cloudy or haze day can the maximum value of MPPT be exerted. MPPT can work well in the bad weather situation, greatly meet the consumer requirement.
- Cost- Efficiency -- MPPT not only promote output efficiency, but also reduce the electricity bills of someone who frequency use the solar energy as the resource of electricity. People save more power with MPPT solar products and not need to spend high cost.
In general, MPPT is an algorithm that includes a controller for maximizing the power of a photovoltaic system. The maximum voltage that a photovoltaic solar system can produce is also known as the maximum power point or peak power voltage. With MPPT, the PV solar cell cools down to about 15V on hot or sunny days and can increase to 18V in very cold weather. The working principle of MPPT is that it is also connected to the photovoltaic system, it sees the best power output of the photovoltaic module and the connected battery which power output is better, it converts and gets the maximum current to the battery. Additionally, it helps power DC loads connected directly to the battery. MPPT is nothing but technology, with not drawback, consumer likely to choose products that with MPPT.